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Where does filum terminale Externum end?

Where does filum terminale Externum end?

As we said, the dural sac ends at the level of the second sacral vertebra (S2). Caudal to the end of the dural sac is a specialization of meninges called the coccygeal ligament (or filum terminale externum) that attaches the meninges, and consequently the spinal cord, to the coccyx.

Is filum terminale vestigial?

Objective: To identify and characterize in detail a novel source of human NPCs in the filum terminale (FT), a vestigial structure at the caudal end of the spinal cord, which is easily accessed and plays no functional role in the postnatal nervous system.

What is sectioning of the filum terminale?

A section of the filum terminale (SFT) is used for the surgical treatment of isolated tethered cord or that resulting from neurulation disorders. More recently, it has been proposed for the management of the occult tethered cord syndrome (OTCS), though it is still under debate.

Where does the filum terminale start?

The filum terminale is a small thin filament of connective tissue that extends inferiorly from the apex of the conus medullaris to the sacrum.

What is the filum terminale Externum made of?

It is made up of fibrous tissue that continues with that of the pia mater and surrounded by the dura mater until its insertion at S2. There are some nervous filaments that are adhered to its external surface. The central canal of the spinal cord extends 5-6 cm into the interior of the filum terminale.

Is the filum terminale and cauda equina the same?

The fibrous extension of the cord, the filum terminale, is a nonneural element that extends down to the coccyx. The cauda equina (CE) is a bundle of intradural nerve roots at the end of the spinal cord, in the subarachnoid space distal to the conus medullaris.

What is filum terminale function?

The filum terminale (FT) is a fibrous band that extends from the conus medullaris to the periosteum of the coccyx, and its functions are to fixate, stabilize, and buffer the distal spinal cord from normal and abnormal cephalic and caudal traction.

Is the filum terminale pia mater?

The filum terminale is an extension of the pia mater that is attached to the coccygeal segments, whose function is to suspend the cord in the CSF (like the denticulate ligaments).

How do you identify Filum terminale intraoperatively?

The filum is differentiated from nerve roots by presence of characteristic squiggly vessel on surface of filum. Also, under the microscope, the filum has a distinctively whiter appearance than the nerve roots, and ligamentous-like strands can be seen running through it.

Which vertebral level does Filum terminale end?

The spinal cord tapers and ends at the level between the first and second lumbar vertebrae in an average adult. The most distal bulbous part of the spinal cord is called the conus medullaris, and its tapering end continues as the filum terminale.

What is the difference between the cauda equina and the filum terminale?