What is melittin in bee venom?

What is melittin in bee venom?

5.2. Melittin is a cationic amphipathic peptide composed of 26 amino acids and represents approximately 50% of the dry weight of bee venom. Characterized as a host defense peptide, melittin has demonstrated potent antitumor efficacy as a result of its cytolytic activity (Gajski & Garaj-Vrhovac, 2013).

Is melittin a neurotoxin?

Bee venom has several kinds of peptides, including melittin, apamin, adolapamine, and mast cell degranulation peptides. Apamin accounts for about 2%-3% dry weight of bee venom and is a peptide neurotoxin that contains 18 amino acid residues that are tightly crosslinked by two disulfide bonds.

How do I get rid of bee pheromones?

After the comb is removed, wash the walls with either ammonia or bleach to remove the pheromones the bees have put on the wood and in the wax left in the wood. The removal of these pheromones reduces the potential for attracting the bees back to this wall.

Can melittin be synthesized?

This paper describes the synthesis of the major form of melittin, using stepwise solid-phase methodology and the demonstration that the synthetic melittin, devoid of the minor component (N-formylmelittin) and other contaminants, interacts with lipid bilayers to form channels which are qualitatively indistinguishable …

Is melittin soluble in water?

Melittin from bee venom is water-soluble, yet integrates into membranes and lyses cells. Each melittin chain consists of 26 amino acid residues and in aqueous salt solutions it exists as a tetramer. We have determined the molecular structure of the tetramer in two crystal forms grown from concentrated salt solutions.

What does bee pheromones smell like?

Bees also use odors to help locate their hive, or their new home after swarming. To humans this pheromone smells lemony. When a bee stings, she releases an odor called an alarm pheromone to alert others to the danger. This alarm pheromone smells like bananas and attracts other bees to come to the defense of the hive.