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What is the vector of epidemic typhus?

What is the vector of epidemic typhus?

Louse-borne typhus (epidemic typhus or exanthematic typhus) is a vector-borne disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted through infected faeces of the body louse Pediculus humanus humanus.

What are arthropod vectors?

Arthropod vectors include mosquitoes, flies, biting midges, ticks, mites, fleas, bugs, lice, and other arthropods that carry and transmit disease-causing organisms, or pathogens, from one host to another.

Is Rickettsia transmitted by arthropod vectors?

Rickettsia species are horizontally transmitted to vertebrates by a variety of arthropod vectors which feed on different species of animals. To date, ticks (Ixodidae), lice (Phtiraptera) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are known to be competent vectors of rickettsial agents.

What is the vector of Rickettsia Rickettsia?

The vectors of the rickettsial diseases of man belong to four groups of parasites—ticks, mites, lice, and fleas. Ticks are vectors of the diseases of the spotted fever and boutonneuse fever groups and are certainly involved to some extent in Q fever.

What is the pathophysiology of typhus?

The major pathology is caused by a vasculitis and its complications. On transmission, Rickettsia is actively phagocytosed by the endothelial cells of the small venous, arterial, and capillary vessels. It is followed by systemic hematogenous spread resulting in multiple localizing vasculitis.

What is the epidemiology of typhus?

Epidemic typhus fever occurs most commonly among people living in overcrowded unhygienic conditions, such as refugee camps or prisons. The disease also occurs in people living in the cool mountainous regions of Asia, Africa, and Central and South America.

Why is Chlamydia Rickettsia unique?

Currently, microbiologists believe that chlamydiae and rickettsiae are gram-negative bacteria unique in their intracellular habitat. This review presents evidence that these organisms have another peculiarity; namely, defective cell walls present throughout much of their life cycle.

What is the causative agent of Q fever?

Q fever is a disease caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. This bacteria naturally infects some animals, such as goats, sheep, and cattle.

What are the characteristics of Rickettsia?

The rickettsiae are rod-shaped or variably spherical, nonfilterable bacteria, and most species are gram-negative. They are natural parasites of certain arthropods (notably lice, fleas, mites, and ticks) and can cause serious diseases—usually characterized by acute, self-limiting fevers—in humans and other animals.

What kingdom is Rickettsia rickettsii in?

The genus Rickettsia encompasses a large group of obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria that fall under the family Rickettsiaceae, order Rickettsiales, class Alphaproteobacteria, phylum Proteobacteria.