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What is the function of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase?

What is the function of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase?

The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a four-electron oxidoreduction that is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of cholesterol and other isoprenoids.

What is the function of HMG-CoA reductase in the cholesterol synthesis?

HMG CoA reductase has been long recognized as the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of cholesterol and as such is a primary focus of regulation. This is underscored by a multivalent system mediated by sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids that exerts stringent feedback control on reductase through multiple mechanisms 2.

What is the role of HMG-CoA reductase in the liver?

HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the rate-controlling step in cholesterol production. This enzyme is highly expressed in the liver, where it is subject to extensive hormonal and dietary regulation.

What type of enzyme is HMG-CoA reductase?

HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, official symbol HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent, EC 1.1. 1.88; NADPH-dependent, EC 1.1. 1.34) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids.

Why does insulin activate HMG-CoA reductase?

Several hormones act to alter the expression of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase in animals. Insulin stimulates HMG-CoA reductase activity likely by increasing the rate of transcription, whereas glucagon acts by opposing this effect.

What happens if HMG-CoA reductase activity is inhibited?

Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

What is the role of HMG-CoA in ketoacidosis?

HMG-CoA is an intermediate in both cholesterol synthesis and ketogenesis. This results in shunting of excess acetyl-CoA into the ketone synthesis pathway via HMG-CoA, leading to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis.

How is HMG-CoA reductase activated?

Regulation of HMG-CoA Reductase First by regulation of transcription of the reductase gene, which is activated by sterol regulatory element binding protein, a protein that binds to the promoter of the HMGR gene when cholesterol levels fall.

What is the function of dihydrofolate reductase in bacteria?

Dihydrofolate reductase catalyzes the reduction of dihy- drofolate with NADPH as the reducing substrate. This enzyme is of special interest because several of its inhibitors have been used in the treatment of neoplastic disease, malaria, bacterial infections, psoriasis, and other disorders (1).

What is the mechanism of action of statin?

increased incidence of lupus and pneumonia 15) – Note the similarity between “statin-induced lupus” and “ minocycline-induced lupus .” 16)

  • dyspnea ( pain while breathing) – Those with pulmonary involvement such as sarcoidosis patients sometimes confuse their disease symptoms with the side effects of statins.
  • muscle pain 17) 18)
  • How to pronounce reductase?

    Pronunciation of sepiapterin reductase with 1 audio pronunciations 1 rating rating ratings Record the pronunciation of this word in your own voice and play it to listen to how you have pronounced it.