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What is the function of a granulosa cell?

What is the function of a granulosa cell?

The granulosa cell (GC) is a critical somatic component of the ovary. It is essential for follicle development by supporting the developing oocyte, proliferating and producing sex steroids and disparate growth factors.

What type of cells are granulosa cells?

A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.

What hormone acts on granulosa cells?

Luteinizing hormone
Luteinizing hormone acts directly at granulosa cells to stimulate periovulatory processes: modulation of luteinizing hormone effects by prostaglandins. Endocrine.

What is the difference between theca and granulosa cells?

The theca cells respond to luteinizing hormone (LH) and produce androgens, as well as progesterone in the pre-ovulatory large follicles (Magoffin, 2005; Wickenheisser et al., 2006). The granulosa cells respond to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and produce estrogen.

Are granulosa cells epithelial?

They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle.

What fluid is produced by granulosa cells?

Estradiol production Granulosa cells of the ovulatory follicle are the major and virtually only source of estradiol in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle and secrete estrogens in response to FSH.

What is the role of theca and granulosa cells?

The granulosa and theca cells are a site of action for the gonadotropins and a site for production of steroid hormones. The theca cells respond to luteinizing hormone (LH) and produce androgens, as well as progesterone in the pre-ovulatory large follicles (Magoffin, 2005; Wickenheisser et al., 2006).

Do granulosa cells produce testosterone?

It was found that granulosa cells, thecal tissue, and stromal tissue all have the biosynthetic capacity to produce P, delta 4, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and E2.

What are theca cells?

Theca cells are the endocrine cells associated with ovarian follicles that play an essential role in fertility by producing the androgen substrate required for ovarian estrogen biosynthesis. Theca cells differentiate from the interfollicular stroma in response to proteins secreted from growing follicles.

What does FSH do to granulosa cells?

FSH drives the proliferation, growth and differentiation of granulosa cells, characterized by: increased vascularization of the theca interna layer of cells peripheral to the basal lamina, formation of a fluid-filled antrum within the maturing follicle, and development of two “classes” of granulosa cells with distinct …

What makes KGN cells unique and useful?

We consider this cell line, KGN, to be very unique and useful, because it maintains most physiological activities, including the expression of functional FSH receptor, as well as the same pattern of steroidogenesis and Fas-mediated apoptosis as those observed in normal granulosa cells.

Do KGN cells express NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)?

Abstract Recent studies showed that KGN cells, derived from a human granulosa cell tumor (GCT), express NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), an important source of H2O2. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel is a Ca2+permeable cation channel that can be activated by H2O2and plays an important role in cellular functions.

How do KGN cells proliferate in monolayers?

KGN cells grew as an adherent monolayer, and stable proliferation of the cells took place during more than 100 passages over almost 5 yr. The cultured cells were proliferated in multilayers after they reached confluence, and no contact inhibition was noted.

How to fix KGN cells in paraformaldehyde?

The KGN cells were plated on cover glass and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde at 4 C for 1 h. After treatment with 0.2% Triton X-100 for 2 min, the cells were incubated with 0.3% H 2 O 2 in methanol for 30 min at room temperature to avoid nonspecific endogenous peroxidase reaction.