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What is the role of EGF and EGFR in a cell signaling pathway?

What is the role of EGF and EGFR in a cell signaling pathway?

EGFR plays a crucial role in initiating the signaling that directs the behavior of epithelial cells and tumors of epithelial origin. Human EGF is a 53-aa polypeptide, whose molecular weight is 6KDa. EGF can stimulate the cell growth and differentiation by binding to its receptor, EGFR.

What is EGF signaling?

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways that regulate growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation in mammalian cells. A map of molecular interactions of the EGFR signaling system is a valuable resource for research in this area.

How does EGF activate EGFR?

According to the “ligand-induced dimerization model”, EGFR is activated by the ligand-induced dimerization of the receptor monomer, which brings intracellular kinase domains into close proximity for trans-autophosphorylation to initiate downstream signaling cascades.

Is EGF autocrine signaling?

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been linked to progression of basal breast cancers. Many breast cancer cells harbor the EGFR and produce its family of ligands, suggesting they may participate in autocrine and paracrine signaling with cells of the tumor microenvironment.

What is the role of EGF in regulation of the cell cycle?

The cell cycle provides a crucial platform for coordination between proliferation and cell death. The oncogenic effects of EGFR include initiation of DNA synthesis, enhanced cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Specific abrogation of EGFR results in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or dedifferentiaton of cancer cells.

What are the respective roles of GRB2 and SOS in the activation of Ras by EGFR?

GRB2 binds to the RTK via its SH2 domain, this allows Sos to bind to the SH3 domain on GRB2 and Sos binds to Ras. -Sos promotes GTP binding to Ras activating Ras. -Active Ras dissociates from Sos and is free to activate downstream signalling components.

What is the role of EGF?

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a common mitogenic factor that stimulates the proliferation of different types of cells, especially fibroblasts and epithelial cells. EGF enhances the differentiation, maturation and survival of a variety of neurons.

How does EGF create biological response?

EGF Receptors have an ability to escape lysosomal degradation and translocate into the nucleus to mediate biological functions. In the nucleus, these receptors promote transcription of cell survival genes like Cyclin D1 gene and also act as cofactors for STAT and E2F1 transcription factors18.

What is the difference between autocrine paracrine and endocrine signaling?

The main difference between the different categories of signaling is the distance that the signal travels through the organism to reach the target cell. Paracrine signaling acts on nearby cells, endocrine signaling uses the circulatory system to transport ligands, and autocrine signaling acts on the signaling cell.

What is an example of autocrine signaling?

Autocrine signaling is a type of cell signaling wherein a cell signal released from the cell binds to the same cell, i.e., ‘self’. The chemical signal released from the cells is known as autocrine agents or autocrine signals. For example, progesterone has been found to act as an autocrine signal in breast cancer.

How does EGF stimulation cause a cell to undergo proliferation?

In general, binding of its ligand, epidermal growth factor (EGF), results in stimulation of the EGFR tyrosine kinase, which in turn stimulates intracellular signal transduction, enhances transcription of growth related genes, and promotes cell growth. …

How does signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor promote cell growth and survival?

How do endosome-mediated STAT3 activation and EGFR phosphorylation maintain GBM cancer stem cells?

Although EGFR phosphorylation and STAT3 activation are essential for the maintenance of GBM cancer stem cells, the molecular mechanism underlying endosome-mediated STAT3 activation is not fully understood.

Does the STAT3 signaling axis provide resistance to EGFR inhibitors?

In this mini-review, we specifically focus on the role of the STAT3 signaling axis in providing both intrinsic and acquired resistance to inhibitors of the EGFR. We also focus on STAT3 pathway targeting in an attempt to overcome resistance to anti-EGFR therapeutics.

What does EGFR do in autophagy?

The roles of subcellularly located EGFR in autophagy The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a well-studied receptor-tyrosine kinase that serves vital roles in regulation of organ development and cancer progression. EGFR not only exists on the plasma membrane, but also widely expressed in the nucleus, endosomes, and mitochondria.

Does RRAD bind to EGFR and EEA1?

In the current study, we showed that GTP-binding protein RRAD (RAS associated with diabetes, RAD) physically associates with EGFR, and EEA1, enhancing the stability and endosome-associated nuclear translocation of EGFR.